Francisco Bolognesi Cervantes (1816-1880) was a Peruvian military hero. When the War of the Pacific began in 1879 between Chile and the alliance of Peru and Bolivia, Bolognesi, now 62, rejoined the Peruvian Army and was active in actions against the Chilean forces. When Chilean messengers demanded surrender of Arica because of their 3 to 1 numerical superiority, he replied, “Tengo deberes sagrados que cumplir y los cumpliré hasta quemar el último cartucho” (“I have sacred duties to fulfill, and I will fulfill them until I fire the last round”). The expression “hasta quemar el último cartucho” (“Until the last round is fired”) has passed into the Spanish language.
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